Shoulder instability can be congenital (habitual) or caused by an accident with dislocation of the humeral head from the glenoid cavity (traumatic). This often leads to injuries of the labrum. In individual cases, the consequences of injuries must be objectified, for example by sonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In young, athletically active patients, surgical stabilization is recommended in cases of proven labrum injury or concomitant injuries of the rotator cuff. In older patients, the initial traumatic dislocation can be treated conservatively without surgery. However, in the case of a re-dislocation event, surgical stabilization is also recommended, which is performed arthroscopically. In the case of habitual shoulder instabilities, appropriate individual therapy must be initiated depending on the severity of the findings.